Sunday, February 23, 2020

Project Management Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Project Management - Research Paper Example Project management could be defined as a process where individuals apply their knowledge, skills and techniques in order to project activities to meet the project requirement. In other words, project management involves activities such as planning, scheduling and controlling of activities to achieve the desired objectives of the project. As defined by Cleland and Gareis (2006), project management is successful when it follows the process which includes initiating, executing, monitoring, controlling and closing of a project to meet the project requirement. The Project Management Institute defines project management as application of skills and knowledge along with tools and techniques to meet the project requirement (Barkley, 2006). Hamilton (2004) divided project management into 5 components, i.e., initiation, planning, execution, monitoring, control and lastly, closure of a project. Project life cycle indicates all the project phases that a project has to go through in order to be completed. In other words, it is a collection of project phases that are divided so that the project can be controlled and managed accordingly. According to Kerzner (2009) project life-cycle is divided into four phases that indicates the beginning and ending point of a project. Furthermore, according to Kerzner (2009), the first phase of a project life cycle is the initiation phase followed by project planning, project execution and project closure. Each of the phases mentioned by Kerzner (2009) is further divided into activities which need to be done to accomplish the goal of project management. In order to further elaborate the project life cycle, each of the phases is separately presented along with the activities involved within the particular phase. Phase 1: Project Initiation The aim of this phase is to identify the problems along with the opportunities that the business could focus upon. This phase also includes solutions to the problems that a business may face. In this phase, the project manager defines the project and the opportunities that the organization could achieve by undertaking the project (Lewis, 2006). The activities within this phase are as follows: a) Developing a business case b) Undertaking a feasibility study c) Establishing terms o f reference d) Appointment of project team e) Setting up office f) Performing review of this phase (Lewis, 2006). Phase 2: Project Planning The second step in the project life cycle is project planning. In this phase, the manager indicates all the activities and tasks that need to be performed. In this phase, each task is linked and the manager ties the tasks with deadlines to get the task completed within the timeframe. Within this phase, the project manager identifies the number of people required for the completion of tasks along with the identification of expenses that might incur during the completion of the project undertaken. The crucial activities that are involved in this phase are as follows: a) Creation of plan b) Creation of resource plan c) Creation of financial plan d) Creation of quality plan e) Creation of risk plan f) Creation of acceptance plan g) Creation of communication plan h) Creation of procurement plan i) Contracts with the suppliers j) Reviewing the success of this phase (Meredith & Mantel, 2012) Phase 3:

Friday, February 7, 2020

Transcontinental Railroad Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Transcontinental Railroad - Essay Example â€Å"The California Legislature took a hand in the issue in 1855-6, fearing that Congress might relax its energies, and urged a speedy construction of a railroad, but the jealousy of politicians delayed the initiative† (San Francisco News Letter, 1925). During this period, short line railroads were being made in the Mid West. The credit of starting the enterprise goes to Leland Stanford. One day, as he was passing the Collis P. Huntington store in Sacramento, Leland Stanford saw the wagons being loaded. With the development of traffic, Leland Stanford realized the need of a quicker and improved carrier service, so he discussed the matter with Collis P. Huntington, Charles Crocker, and Mark Hopkins. All of them mutually consented that a railroad connection with the East was needed. â€Å"Charles Crocker was a leading direction, and the spirit of dominant energy in pressing construction through and over all obstruction† (San Francisco News Letter, 1925). The water transp ortation met the needs of America in the pre-Civil War period. In the early 1830s, locomotives arrived in America from the Great Britain, and greatly inspired the local people of America, who were already eagerly waiting for the year-round transportation service that would be punctual unlike the riverboats and the canal barges. The railroad was just about to become the mode of transportation of the industrial America by 1860, when a tracks’ network ran across the eastern half of America. The great concern at that time was of its payment. There were two main options for payment; either the private investors would finance the railroads, or the railroads could be the enterprises of the state. America selected the free enterprise unlike most of the European countries. The government played a great role in it. Railroads were lured by a lot of states and localities with financial aid’s offers. The federal government promoted the interregional rail construction by means of la nd grants. However, the most significant boost was a legal corporation which assisted in the collection of private capital in prodigious amounts. In this way, people who had invested in the railroads were saved as they bore only the risk of the invested money rather than being personally liable for the debts of the railroad. The responsibility of making the railroad was given to the construction companies. A vast majority of those companies were financial structures. â€Å"Hiring contractors and suppliers often involved persuading them to accept the railroad’s bonds as payment and, when that failed, wheeling and dealing to raise cash by selling or borrowing on the bonds† (Henretta, 2009, p. 498). Most of the construction companies were very corrupt. The promoters tried to pocket a significant percentage of the total funds reserved for construction of the railroads. Factories were rapidly established in America during the 1870s. The products of these factories including paper, textile, and fabrics replaced the home-made articles. With the economical surge of America, a new kind of demand arose. â€Å"Railroads needed locomotives; new factories needed machinery; cities needed trolley lines, sanitation systems, and commercial Structures†

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

The Human Perception of Loudness Essay Example for Free

The Human Perception of Loudness Essay Aim: The aim of the experiment was to discover the difference between loudness and sound pressure level, gain knowledge of typical sound level values in common environments and to be able to make rough estimations of what sound level measurements could be in different places. Method: The CEL-440 sound level meter was used to measure sound pressure levels in dbz and loudness levels in dBA. It was decided to base the experiment on learning environments around the university, ranging from areas of study inside and outside. This was done because, as the areas that are considered in the experiement are ones that the group would use in everyday life so it would be interesting to see what loudness and sound pressure levels most people live and sit in during there every day lives. Loudness is a psychological quality which relies on human interpretation. Loudness is hard to measure as it depends on how the human ear responds to it. Sound Pressure Level is linked to loudness as it is a physical quantity which can be measured. Sound Pressure Level can be measured, when loudness cannot. Sound pressure level ranges from the smallest detectable sound which is measured in pa (pascals). Sound is heard, by air follicles vibrating on the ear. The highest sound is atmospheric pressure around 1,000,000pa that can not physically be heard. If it was any louder then there would not be any atmospheric pressure left so everything would be destroyed. Threshold of human aural perception is the pressure of the air molecules colliding with the ear drum which is close to the threshold of perception. Young people with sensitive hearing are able to hear as little as 20pa, but most people will not be able to hear this measurement. The just noticeable difference depends on factors such as overall levels and frequencies. However, it is conveniently remembered as 1dB, one decibel. When something is measured in decibels it is refering to ratio (10log power difference, 20 log voltage difference) between the amount of two levels and the level being measured. How do people hear sound? When a sound is made, it is dependant on the response of the human ear and every ear responds in a different manner. Everybody has a different individual shape to their ear. The ear canals are unique to every individual, and ear canals resonances occur at approximately 3.4khz and 13khz, but this depends on age and health. There is no accurate way of measuring sound as everybody interprets is differently. The diagram below shows the basic structure of the ear and where the ear canal is situated. Fletcher and Munson Experience 1993 was the breakthrough of an investigation that explains a great deal. They investigated the perception of loudness in human subjects. The loudness level estimated by the subject for different stimulus levels and different frequencies was recorded. Humans have a limited range of hearing whereas dogs can hear things much louder. Fletcher and Munson discovered a graph of equal loudness contours. Shown below. When the ear hears sound it is not equally sensitive to all frequencies, especially the low and high frequency ranges. Fletcher and Munson charted the response to frequencies over the entire audio range and this is shown in the graph above. The set of curves show the sound pressure level of pure tones that are percieved as being equally loud. The graph has been plotted for each 10 decibel rise in level when the reference tone is 1kHz. This is also referred to as loudness level contours. From 1 to 5kHz the curves are lowest in the range. There is a slight dip at 4kHz which probably indicates that the ear is most sensitive to frequencies in this particular range. The levels of intensity for higher and lower tones had to be raised in order to create the equal impression of loudness. The results were accurate to the predictions made for the different locations. The sound pressure level in the places such as the computer labs and lecture theatres were thought to be quieter. However there were many computers and equipment which were left on standby, appearing off and very quiet. It was thought that the the library upstairs should have been quieter than downstairs as it is where books are kept and downstairs is where groups congrigate. Although it seems fairly quiet in the upstairs section, the air conditioning fitted can effect the sound pressure level recorded. The recording booths and live room were exactly as predicted which is very good as it means they have been built correctly and are one hundred percent sound proof. The relationship between the dBa results that were collected and the dBz were more or less as expected. The measurements that stood out were the library upstairs as the sound pressure level was much higher than the loudness along with the Lecture room. The lecture room was empty until it was entered by the group and there were no lights on either. The lights turned on automatically when people entered. It was thought that in both the library and the lecture theatre there are a lot of frequencies that exist but cannot physically be heard. This would include certain machinary such as air conditioning, automated light response system, fans from computers that seem very quiet, anything that is left on standby which appears off. Loudness is a subjective quality in which is depends a huge amount on sound pressure level as well as the frequency spectrum and amplitude envelope of sound. It also depends on the environmental conditions under which it is heard and the auditory of the listener.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Impact of Family, Gender, and Education on Wuthering Heights :: Charlotte Bronte, Informative

Impact of Family, Gender, and Education on Wuthering Heights  Ã‚   Education of the 18th and 19th century connects closely to the gender association of this period. Men from wealthy families were the only persons provided the opportunity to be educated at the university level. Just as many men use golf to prove their status and superiority today, these gentlemen pursued cricket and rugby.   Another similarity with society today involves the importance of personal connections to further your education possibilities and business opportunities. Social standing was extremely important during this time. "Manners, money, birth, occupation and leisure time were crucial indicators of social standing, determining not only one's place in society but one's freedom to act, speak, learn, and earn" (Longman p. 1886).   Some interesting factors that determined this status, which I personally would love to see more of today, are loyalty, duty and public service. Instead of the elite being chosen by birth, ability and learning became the criteria for administration of society. Frances Cobbe described the boarding school that she attended as a young girl. The tuition cost was 25 times what Charlotte Bronte earned in 1841 (Longman p.1888). Cobbe describes the importance of women from well to do families at this time to be beautiful, and occupied with knitting and gossiping. Intelligence and accomplishments were not pursuits allowed to women. Charlotte Bronte described one of the few occupations permitted women at this time in her book Jane Eyre. As stated previously the income received for such grueling work was one twenty fifth the tuition of Cobbe's tuition for boarding school.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Found in Translation Essay

Closing Case: Found in Translation: How to Make the Multicultural Workforce Work 1 What role does the basic communication process in Figure 11.1 play in this case? Explain. The basic communication process is vital from the Figure 11.1 in this case. The definition of communication is â€Å"the interpersonal transfer of information and understand† as stated on page 300. This is monumental for the CEO Glynn Lloyd to do with 70 percent of his 65 employees being from different places like Trinidad, Brazil, Nigeria, the Dominican Republic, and Cage Verde (p. 326). He has to have his employees carry out what he envisions for his company though understanding what is required. Which of the five communication strategies in Figure 11.3 does CEO Glynn Lloyd rely on the most at City Fresh Foods? At City Fresh Foods Glynn Lloyd relies on withhold and uphold strategy the most out of the five communication strategies in Figure 11.3. Lloyd’s also includes tell and sell strategy at City Fresh. The logistics manager, Kurt Stegenga states that the English classes was a bit much so they teach limited and key languages of City Fresh Foods such as â€Å"delivery ticket, check-out sheet and ice packs† (p. 326). â€Å"I spend a little extra time trying to help them read what they need to know (p. 326). At City Fresh Foods, the multilingual employees learn key terms such as â€Å"safe and out† and even the English alphabet by watch Sesame Street as noted in this case. Training material is visual so that at City Fresh Foods the employees can duplicate work efforts by visually looking at examples of how to do their jobs; it’s the hands on approach, â€Å"A demonstration is better than words, says Lloyd† (p. 326). How should Glynn Lloyd stimulate upward communication at City Fresh Foods? Explain. Glynn Lloyd should stimulate upward communication at City Fresh Foods by having a suggestion system. The employees that are performing the day-to-day operations are best to give suggestion on how to do something better. Just because they have a language barrier doesn’t mean that the processes cannot be Closing Case: Found in Translation: How to Make the Multicultural Workforce Work 2 achieved more efficiently or a practice from their culture could make the process better. As stated on page 312, â€Å"can be a wellspring of good ideas†. Glynn Lloyd by his openness of different cultural working together for one common purpose would benefit and seem open to the idea. Lloyd seems to have the ability to multi-task and a business sense to provide feedback if not immediate to surveys taken by his employees. How would you rate Glynn Lloyd as a listener? Explain. I would rate Glynn Lloyd as a good listener, though this case does not go into details or have examples it demonstrated through the different ways in which he communicates to the employees that all the components are there to being a good listener. Lloyd knew the 40 hour classes to teach English was not working so he adopted along with his managers of ways the multicultural employees could learn. Lloyd states, â€Å"They can talk to each other in whatever language they want† because the employees are not exclusive talking English during work. As an incentive to being in management it’s required to know English, this incentive by City Fresh to contribute up to $1,000 per person and $12,000 a year for education is huge. Lloyd makes it worthwhile for his employees to strive for success and that comes from listening to what the employees want. How comfortable would you be managing this type of multicultural organization? Explain. For me, I would not be comfortable with managing this type of multicultural organization. There are too many different languages and cultures to try to learn. I’m a person that requires immediate feedback, I would lose patients with getting a translator to encode, decode to the employees and wait to see if they understand what I need from them. I know that the future according to this case that â€Å"immigrants will account for nearly two-thirds of the country’s population growth between now and 2050† (p. 236), so in Closing Case: Found in  Translation: How to Make the Multicultural Workforce Work 3 order for me to relevant and be active in my community I better find a way to adapt and learn other languages and understand different cultures. Closing Case: Found in Translation: How to Make the Multicultural Workforce Work 4 References Kreitner, R. (2009). International Management and Cross-Cultural competence. (11th ed.). Management. Mason, Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

I Am A Student At The University Of Wyoming - 973 Words

I am Daniel Ledo. I am a student at the University of Wyoming who is going to graduate with a B.A. in Psychology next May. I have spent the past three and a half years learning as much about the field of psychology as I could and it has driven me towards becoming a mental health counselor. Beyond just learning about the theories and foundations of psychology as a science, I have learned about the discipline and empathy I will need to have in order to successfully in this field. This has never intimidated me and has actually strengthened my belief that psychology was the correct field for me to dedicate my life too. When I learned about counseling from my Introduction to Counseling class in the spring semester of 2014, I knew that this was the emphasis that I wanted to pursue. Now that I am coming towards the end of my undergraduate work, I want to continue my education in order to enter this field professionally. The thorough and challenging curriculum that the University of Colorado -Denver provides me with the kind of opportunity that I am looking for. My core values within my work in the counseling field will revolve around a strong sense of empathy as well as a desire to help other people. This all started I was 12 years old. While thinking about my future, figured out that I wanted to spend my life helping others in any way that I could. I did not know what that meant at the time, but I did know that this was the cause that I would dedicate the rest of my life to. HowShow MoreRelatedWhy I Don t Buy Brand Names Of Things889 Words   |  4 Pagesall visible based on the things you own. I personally have found myself guilty of buying things that I don’t necessarily need just to fit in or to be up with the â€Å"times†. I buy brand names of things because I don’t want to look cheap or to get something of less quality with a knock off brand. I find myself expressing my personality in the things that I own. I express myself through my outfit s, the dà ©cor in my home, the car I drive, the phone I use, the way I do my makeup and so much more. People canRead MoreThe Position Of Assistant Professor Of Socio Cultural Foundations Of Education At Miami University997 Words   |  4 PagesI am writing to apply for the position of Assistant Professor of Socio-Cultural Foundations of Education at Miami University, which I found at the Chronicle of Higher Education. I am currently a PhD candidate at the University of Wyoming in the College of Education, where I am nearing completion of my dissertation investigating international students’ English language issues, perceived discrimination, and intent to persist at the university. 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I’ve seen how my dad travels all over Europe every month for business meetings, where he checks in and out of the most luxurious hotels and drives around BMW and Mercedes-Benz rental cars, then spends any free time sightseeing in Paris, Rome, Greece, and many other places a ll over Europe—all paid for by his company. When he returns home after a week or two in EuropeRead MoreThe Price Of Attendance Of Universities1195 Words   |  5 PagesHundreds of thousands of students struggle with the debt that they accumulated paying their way through their schooling. The price of attendance of universities has been growing, and it s making it harder for those who are not financially endowed to receive an education. Thousands of students are forced to drop out of college every single year due to financial issues, and thousands of students have to struggle to pay off their student loans for decades. Maybe this is the fault of the colleges forRead MoreCorporal Punishment And Its Effect On Children1708 Words   |  7 Pagesone time or another, almost with the same level of innocent stupidity. Correcting innocent stupidity should not bring any harm to any child. There are other workable and result oriented alternatives to corporal punishment. With my positio n as a Mom, I have come to figure out that starting early enough to apply alternative to corporal punishment yields very positive result. The use of corporal punishment in homes and schools has been widely debated. Corporal punishment is harmful to children. It couldRead MoreWhy Community Service Is Important960 Words   |  4 Pagestime for. Since I was young I have always volunteered for my Catholic Youth Group. At first I didn t know many people there and wasn t very enthusiastic. Later, as I got to know the other kids and starting pushing myself to join in the activities, I learned to enjoy and relish my time there. Some activities we did was decorating the nursing home for Christmas, singing carols, writing letters to the residents, and just sitting there visiting and listening to what they had to share. I have realized

Friday, December 27, 2019

Effects Of Games On Learning Disabilities Essay - 2016 Words

Effects of Games on Learning Disabilities Having a learning disability should not stop students from learning or doing well in school. The placement of special education can be beneficial to those who need extra help in school. Games can be helpful for those in special education programs. By implementing games and new strategies of learning, one could learn easier and more efficiently. For example, a particular case was with those who have ADHD, in which the study was comparing the effects that training one’s working memory in children using regular techniques versus a game-like approach. The study concluded that children aged 9 to 12 who had ADHD appeared to show greater levels of motivation, better training performance, and superior working memory in the post test compared to the pretest, before the game started. (Prins, 2011). In fact, with the help of games such as chess, memory games, and brain games, student learning can actually aid in minimizing symptoms of learning disabilities. In fact, chess could be a va luable learning aid for children with learning disabilities due to the fact that chess instruction facilities the transfer of cognitive skills from chess to mathematics (Bart 1). Not only those with learning disabilities, but in general, those put in special education can benefit from games by learning how games can have an impact on learning tactics and how one could cooperate efficiently. The goal of this project is to examine if people with some experienceShow MoreRelatedEffect Of Integrating Computer Integrated Instruction For Students With Disabilities1220 Words   |  5 PagesThe effect of incorporating computer integrated instruction for students with disabilities was analyzed through three different articles. 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Flanders, personal communication, August 30, 2011). Until recently, little consideration was made in the use of assistive technology (AT) for students with mild disabilities, specifically in the field of dyslexia education and intervention (Edyburn, 2006, p. 18). With the passing of Senate Bill 866, concerning the implementation of classroom technology plans for students with dyslexia, the pursuit of reform has becomeRead MoreThe Emotional Development Of Young Children1085 Words   |  5 Pages children are learning the meaning behind each emotion and how to appropriately use them to express themselves. Erik Erikson, psychologist, created an 8 socioemotional stage development theory explaining what skills were being developed at certain ages. Parental monitoring is important du ring childhood to determine their emotional progress to catch any delays or disabilities developing. Positive nurturing will create a more positive outcome in their education. Also how the effects of bullying and